This report aims to reveal Turkish citizens’ perceptions of and attitudes toward Syrian refugees in Istanbul and identify the political, socioeconomic, and cultural factors underlying them. In light of the existing academic studies on attitudes toward immigrants, our study focuses particularly on the role of identity-based threat perceptions and material concerns. Using variables such as political preference, ethnic identity, religious belonging, lifestyle, social class, and gender, we analyze how Turkish citizens from different political and social backgrounds view Syrian refugees. We also examine how citizens interpret and negotiate the prevailing discourses on refugees articulated by political actors and civil society organizations. In doing so, we hope to shed light on the multi-dimensional nature of natives’ attitudes toward Syrians and contribute to the development of discourses and policies that would facilitate the social integration of refugees.